Endometriosis is a condition in which the tissue that makes up the uterine lining, the endometrium, is found outside the uterus. The endometrium can be found in and on other organs in the pelvis and abdominal area. The most common areas in which it can be found are the ovaries, fallopian tubes, bowels and outside of the uterus. It can travel as far as the kidney, bladder, or even the lungs.
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The misplaced endometrium responds to a woman's menstrual cycle in the same way it would inside the uterus. Each month the tissue builds up, breaks down and sheds. Unlike the tissue in the uterus, there is no where for the blood and tissue to go, resulting in inflammation, swelling, pain, and in some cases adhesions.
Source: Mayo Clinic, Medscape
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